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Generation of computer since its Invention

                                            Generation of computer 

The development of computer phases is called computer generation. The computer comes into existence during the second world war. The computer was developed in five distinct phases is known as the generation of computers. Each phase is characterized by the type of switching circuits used in the computers.

The first generation of computer:  (1946- 1959) 

The computers that were produced in this duration used Vacuum  Tube and called the first generation computer such computers had been very big heavy and with a large number of internal circuits but had a small amount of information.

The first electronic computer of first generation computers was the ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and calculator) which was developed by J. Presper Eckert and J. W. Mauchly at Pennsylvania University in U.S.A the other developed computer of the first generation were Uni vacED SAC, and ED-VAC etc.

First generation computer pic 1

Characterized by first-generation computer:

  • Vacuum tubes were used
  • Large in size and heavy in weight
  • The slow speed of operation
  • Complex maintenance system
  • Limited computing capability

The second generation of computer: (1959-1965)


The computers developed in this duration used transistors in place of vacuum tube these computers were faster, cheaper and smaller in size than those of first generation computer these computers were having magnetic tape, disk storage for memory the development of high-level programming language such as FORTRAN, COBOL, Algol etc.


These computers were used for the commercial application such as payroll, inventory control production planning and general laser system that were also developed.



Second generation computer pic 1


Characteristics of the second generations of computer:
  • There were used transistors in place of vacuum tube 
  • Smaller in size and less power consuming higher speed of operation 
  • Low heat, production so lower system failure used for producing commercial and other purpose application. 
  • Supported machine and assembly languages.




third generation computer pic 1



The third generation of computer: (1965-1971)

The computer developed in this duration used small integrated circuits intend of vacuum tube or transistors. These circuits were known as chip connecting of the transistor, resistors, and capacitors. These computers were smaller faster more reliable with larger memory and lower power consumption than those of second-generation computer. The high-level program language such FORTRAN FORTH, COBOL 68, BASIC LOGO etc. were developed for a high-level programming language.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system.


Characteristics of the third generation of computer:



  •   Integrated circuits were used
  •  Better programming   
  •  High-level programming
  •  The higher speed of operation in Nanoseconds
  •  Supported high-level language.





These computers are smaller in size, cheapest price, highest in prominent technology and used, faster in speed and accuracy among all generations. This generation has also given the developments of more refined high-level programming languages and the database such as COBOL, PASCAL, DBMS, ADA etc.
  
Fourth generation computer
Fourth generation computer pic 1

The fourth generation of computer: (1971-1980)


The computers developed during this period used very large scale integrated circuits. The computer of this generation used a microprocessor that was the signal silicon chip having the entire computer system with about the 50 thousand transistors minicomputers, portable computers, and the supercomputer is the 4th generation of computer.


Characteristics of the fourth generation of computer:

  •  Very large inlaid of data and very large scale integrated circuits known as a microprocessor
  • Mass storage capacity
  • The higher speed of operation
  • Smallest in size
  • The higher speed of operation
  • Great developments in the fields of network 
  • Smallest in size 
  • Higher programming languages and database.

The fifth generation of computer: (1971-1980)

The computer of this generation processes this computer will be having artificial intelligence that is based on taking decision independently. These computers will intelligent to do work enough themselves. They will have knowledge of what and when to do. These computers will be able to reason to drain useful conclusion about the world to understand a natural language used by as or comprehend a visual scene and to perform other required human types of intelligence. The scientists are at work to develop computers with artificial intelligence.



Fifth generation computer pic 1

Fifth generation computer

Characteristics of fifth generation computer:

    • Robotics
    • Neural network
    • Development of expert systems to make decisions in real life situations
    • Natural language understanding and generation
    • Development of true artificial intelligence
    • more user-friendly interfaces with multimedia features.

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